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Heart - the lifeline of the human body can be the size of your fist, but it is an epicentre of all functions. This vital muscular organ, located firmly in the chest cavity or thorax, not only pumps oxygenated blood to various body parts but also bears the brunt of emotions, stress, and even temperament.
If you are certified as ‘heart healthy’ by your cardiologist, it means that you are in the grip of your overall well-being, but in these days and times of fast-paced and stress-filled lives, it, unfortunately, is a rarity of sorts.
The medical speciality that deals with the heart and cardiovascular system is known as Cardiology. A major branch of medicine, Cardiology deals primarily with diagnosing and preventing various heart-related ailments. Treating heart conditions require exceptional medical facilities for accurate diagnostic and surgical procedures – be they invasive, minimally invasive, or helmed by renowned cardiologists and cardiac surgeons.
Cardiology as a medical speciality has evolved over many decades and, in recent years, has paved the way for minimally invasive procedures that not only play a crucial role in saving a life but also ensure faster patient recovery.
Marengo Asia offers round-the-clock medical services. Our eminent cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and well-trained paramedical staff work alongside other medical departments to ensure the patient's quick recovery.
Talk to our experts at the Department of Cardiology for accurate diagnosis and treatment options.
How To Identify an Ailing Heart?
Show some love to your heart and listen to the body. Not all heart conditions present with noticeable symptoms, but do not ignore the following signs:
The most common heart ailments that would require immediate medical and surgical intervention are:
Coronary Angiography or Coronary Angiogram is a common cardiac catheterization procedure often performed in conjunction with Coronary Angioplasty. Your doctor might recommend these minimally invasive procedures if you suffer from chest pain, discomfort in the jaw, left hand, neck, and arms, breathlessness, and sweating. Coronary Angiogram is aided by an X-ray machine where the surgeon injects a dye into the blood vessels. Guided by imaging blood vessels on the device, the expert would look for clogged arteries, if any. These images are called angiograms, and if they reveal the presence of plaque in arteries, the patient will immediately undergo an angioplasty.
A pacemaker is an advanced, small electronic device that is implanted under the chest to regulate the slow electric problems in a heartbeat. It comprises three parts - a pulse generator, single or multiple leads, and an electrode on each lode. The main function of the Pacemaker is to send signals to the heart and stimulate the heart rate either if it slows down or goes irregular.
Aortic Valvuloplasty or Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed to repair a heart valve with a narrowed opening. The narrowed heart valve or stenosis causes the thickening of heart flaps or leaflets, which become thick and fuse together. Valve stenosis reduces blood flow through the valve, thus causing shortness of breath, chest pain, etc. Valvuloplasty is also known as Balloon Valvuloplasty, Balloon Valvotomy, And Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty.
Endovascular Aneurysm Repair, or EVAR, is a minimally invasive procedure that is recommended for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms. An Aorta is a primary artery in the human body that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body. An aortic aneurysm happens when blood flow forces against the weak area in the wall of the blood vessel causing a bulge or aortic walls to push outwards. When it bursts, it not only causes blood flow to other organs but can turn fatal within minutes.
Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) is a lifesaving procedure that uses tiny surgical instruments to repair bulges in blood vessels.
An Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery is an advanced, open-heart surgery that is done without a heart-lung machine. During this procedure, the heart continues to beat and supply blood to the rest of the body, and it is also known as 'beating heart surgery.' Off-Pump CABG is done to facilitate blood flow to the coronary arteries, where the surgeon takes a healthy vein or artery from another part of the body and then uses the vessel to 'bypass' the blocked blood vessel to restore the normal blood flow.
Keyhole or Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (MIDCAB) is a highly advanced surgical technique in treating various heart ailments. It is done through small keyhole-sized incisions aided by specialized surgical instruments instead of larger cuts in open surgeries.
One of the main advantages of Keyhole bypass surgery is the tiny incision that is about 2 to 3 inches long, which enables less blood loss and faster recovery.
Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Surgery or MICAS CABG is a procedure that is done by making several small incisions. Also known as the McGinn technique, this is a beating heart multi-vessel procedure performed through an anterolateral mini thoracotomy. Some of the advantages of MICAS are minimal blood loss, fast recovery and healing, and fewer infections, besides the reduced risk of the deep sternal wound. MICAS serves as a shot in the arm for high-risk patients for whom traditional open-heart surgery would increase the complications.
Hybrid Aortic Surgery or repair is a procedure that combines conventional open-chest surgery with stent placement (endovascular surgery). It is done to repair the aorta, the primary blood vessel that transports blood from your heart to your vital organs. Aortic aneurysms, enlargement of the aorta, and patients with severe complications due to other medical conditions benefit from this surgery. It is either done in conjunction with each other but can also be staged a few days apart.
Endovascular Aortic Surgery is a minimally invasive procedure for treating Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm or AAA, a bulge that occurs in the wall of the large artery called the aorta. It happens due to a weak spot in the artery wall and, if not treated on time, can tear, causing major complications.
The walls of the aorta are designed to handle the force of blood pressure, but conditions like high blood pressure, smoking, atherosclerosis, trauma, or injury can damage the walls leading to a balloon-like bulge called an aneurysm when it tears or bursts or even splits alongside the inside of aorta wall known as aortic dissection. This condition needs immediate surgical intervention.
A Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is an invasive procedure that treats coronary artery disease or CAD, which causes narrowing of the coronary arteries due to the build-up of fatty substances within the walls of the arteries. This eventually restricts the supply of oxygen-rich blood and other nutrients to the heart.
CABG is a time-tested, widely recommended surgical procedure for treating narrowed arteries and restoring the blood supply. It is done by bypassing the blocked portion of the coronary artery with a healthy vein or artery taken from the leg or chest. The newly constructed graft bypasses the block and facilitates the blood supply.
Heart valve surgery treats conditions related to one of the four heart valves. The main function of the four valves – the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, and aortic valve is to keep the blood flowing in the right direction from the heart. Each valve consists of flaps. The flaps of mitral and tricuspid valves are known as leaflets, and for aortic and pulmonary valves, they are known as cusps.
These valves open and close with every heartbeat, and if they fail to open or shut properly, it disrupts the blood flow. There are two types of Heart Valve Surgery:
The heart is a complex organ and can cause an emergency anytime. Emergency cardiac surgeries are classified as Cardiac trauma, aortic dissection, and surgery for sudden myocardial infarction or heart attack.
A cardiac trauma is defined as an injury caused to sudden force directly impacting the anterior chest, compressing the region. Motor vehicle accidents are the most common reason behind cardiac trauma. An Aortic Dissection is a life-threatening condition where a tear occurs in the main artery called the aorta. When this happens, blood oozes out of the tear, causing the inner and middle layers of the aorta to dissect. This needs immediate surgical intervention.
A heart attack is the most acute condition that can happen anytime to anyone. This needs to be fixed with Coronary Angiogram and a subsequent angioplasty to clear the clogged arteries.
Minimally Invasive heart surgery is an advanced surgical technique where small incisions are made on the right side of the chest region for accessing the heart between the ribs. It does not involve cutting through the breastbone like in conventional open-heart surgery.
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is recommended for treating a wide range of heart conditions. It offers many advantages like minimal blood loss, faster recovery, and less hospital stay.
Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) is a non-metallic mesh tube that is used for treating Coronary Artery Disease. Though similar to a stent, Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) dissolves on its own soon after the blocked artery starts functioning naturally. BVS looks like a small mesh tube but is smaller than a stent and aids in restoring blood flow to the heart. It takes 12 to 24 months for the BVS to dissolve, and till then, it supports and strengthens the artery to stay open.
The advantages of BVS are aplenty. The patient is spared from the concern of living with the permanent stent for the rest of their life, which supports and strengthens the artery and ensures faster recovery.
Double Valve Replacement is a highly complex and complicated surgical procedure where the patient requires the replacement of both mitral and aortic valves. It is not a routine surgical procedure owing to various risk factors and is recommended only in difficult cases. The four coronary valves – mitral, aortic, pulmonary, and tricuspid valves play a crucial role in the functioning of the heart. When these valves do not function to their optimum capacity and do not open and shut properly, that needs to be a reduction in the blood supply, making the heart grow weaker.
A leakage or regurgitation of the valve makes it ever more complicated for the patient causing symptoms like severe dizziness, shortness of breath, fainting, etc.
An Electrophysiological Study (EPS) and Radio Frequency Ablation are done in conjunction with each other to diagnose and treat the conditions related to abnormal heartbeats.
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement is a surgical procedure that is done when the aortic valve fails to open. In this minimally invasive procedure, the surgeon inserts the new valve without removing the old, damaged one. It is recommended for patients with other major health complications like kidney and lung issues where open surgery is ruled out.
TAVI significantly decreases major symptoms like recurrent chest pain, fainting, and swelling in the legs and prevents cardiac arrest or failure.
Atrial septostomy or Septectomy is a surgical procedure that is primarily used to alleviate dextro-Transposition of the great arteries or d-TGA in infants born with congenital heart defects. It is an emergency surgical procedure to treat life-threatening cyanotic congenital heart defects and is performed prior to arterial switch operation. In certain cases, atrial septectomy is also recommended for adults suffering from pulmonary hypertension. There are two types of atrial septostomy:
Balloon Atrial Septostomy
Coronary Angioplasty, or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, is a minimally invasive procedure that is subsequently done after Coronary Angiogram. It is performed if Coronary Angiogram reveals clogged or narrowed-down coronary arteries. The term ''Angioplasty'' means the balloon that is used to stretch and open the thinned down or blocked artery.
The major congenital birth defects are Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), and Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDS), which can be found even as they age. Under these circumstances, the blood flows from the left side of the heart to the right side, and as a result, the heart reels under a lot of workload.
In recent times, advanced closure methods have come in handy to correct these congenital defects.
Minimally invasive surgery, the surgeon uses different techniques to operate cancer with minimal damage to the body. this type of surgery is lined with less pain, shorter hospital stays and lesser complications.
Abnormalities in the heart at birth happen if the heart or blood vessels do not form to the fullest in the fetus. It is estimated that 8 out of every 1000 children are born with these defects.
If you notice gray or blue lips, tongue, or fingernails associated with fast, rapid breathing, swelling in legs, belly region, around eyes, and loss of weight, rush to the doctor immediately, as these are signs of congenital heart disease.
Heart problems in children are diagnosed by pediatric cardiologists and pediatric cardiac surgeons.
Thanks to advancements in medical technology, children born with heart problems lead an absolutely normal healthy life as they age.
Your doctor would monitor the progress of the baby, like weight gain, activities, and breathing patterns for the next few weeks to months after the procedure.